YOUNG ARCHITECTS ABOUT PROBLEMS
OF CONTAMPORARY UZBEKISTAN ARCHITECTURE
In our republic, more and more attention is paid to planning of cities every year. It is pleasant that young architects participate in that process. In order to know the young architects better and to understand their sight at problems of today's architecture, Doctor of architecture, Professor Dodo Avazovich Nozilov had a conversation with the young authors of some new buildings constructed in Tashkent. We would offer to our readers the conversation of Doctor D. Nozilov with Shuhrat Hidoyatov, Islam Masharipov and Aibek Faizullaev.
D. Nozilov. Let's begin our conversation with issues of city-planning. In fact construction of any city starts from a general plan. In Uzbekistan, for the short period, significant changes have taken place in many cities, especially in town-planning of Tashkent. Streets have been extended, busy crossroads were added with two - three interchanges, big park zones and squares with fountains have appeared in architectural complexes. These zones and squares correspond to climatic conditions of the city and meet norms of city-planning. What could you say about that?
Sh.Hidoyatov. From the point of city-planning, creation of open grounds is not something casual. Squares and lawns play important role in a composition. The composition of many high-rise buildings and adjoining grounds is artistically plastic. For example, a multi-storey building, which structure was erected about twenty years ago and which was planned as information centre, is being completed with significant changes. In order to keep its dominant position and to create open ground around, it was decided to demolish the building where once was Chamber of Commerce. So, the front facade and adjoining ground face the street of Navoi.
The problem of increasing traffic is solved by means of extended streets. Creation of parks and park zones accompany construction of big squares in Tashkent. All that improves conditions for the rest of citizens and ecology of the city, makes their daily life comfortable and decorates architectural complexes.
I. Masharipov. Architectural ensembles of dominant composition require huge open grounds. Artistically perfect ensemble could be done only keeping proportionality between a square and buildings surrounding it. An example is the building of National Bank of Uzbekistan. Its composition bases on monolithic vertical sections. Due to that and to open ground, the building keeps dominant position in this part of the city. At the same time, soft plastic sections of the structure and adjoining open ground make this building actually majestic. I think that open ground in a form of squares or some zones is appropriate today. Certainly, they play an important role in creation of good climatic conditions in the city. 15-20 years later, growth of population will require construction of new buildings on open grounds between 4-5-story buildings. For example, today the population of Tokyo and Moscow is 3-4 times more, than of Tashkent. Therefore building density is high there. Now it is necessary to give more attention to city planning. It is necessary to create mini compositions.
A.Faizullaev: Ilya Erenburg in the book "People, years, life" shared his impressions from Germany of 1928 and wrote how teenagers living in suburbs of Magdeburg, felt themselves lost among buildings chaotically located by architects-functionalists and many of them suffered neurosis. Appearance of a building and adjoining park should promote spiritual becoming of a person and finding of correct way in life. It is necessary to prevent a person to feel himself lost in city labyrinth of buildings.
Uzbekistan has achieved big successes in the field of town-planning. For example, in Tashkent, crossroads and the most busy traffic circles are equipped with overpasses, underground highways and under crossings. Majestic parks have been laid out. Traffic routes in the city centre have been changed in order to create favorable conditions for rest of citizens. 2-3-story buildings of trade and office complexes are being constructed on open grounds around apartment buildings. If to increase their height, they will better harmonize with neighboring high-rise buildings and provide compositional integrity.
D. Nozilov. What do you think about new architectural complexes? Which are major factors providing beauty of our buildings - new construction materials, creative freedom of the architect or formation of architectural culture?
S. Hidoyatov. Our cities become more beautiful thanks to new buildings. New construction materials allow creating beautiful and compositionally rich buildings. Their appearance pleases our eyes. Various elements of exterior decoration create harmonious composition. Therefore, the majority of such buildings correspond to high artistic level. These are the building of legislative committee of Oliy Majlis of Uzbekistan, Fashion Center, "Circles" in the district of Eski Djuva and others.
Recently such modern material, as alicapon has come to construction industry of Uzbekistan. It looks beautiful and captivates with its smooth surface and property to keep bright color for a long time. I think this material does not render much influence on creativity of architects. The matter is that engineers can easily reproduce a form, color and texture at PC according to architect's project. Now the most part of construction parts and details are made at factories according to the project, and being ready they are installed at correspondent part of a building.
Technology and culture of construction materials manufacture has developed much. Construction materials like alicapon facilitated more labor of builders than architects. It is necessary to use new construction materials widely. In this connection I would like to mention a fragment of long discussion between the German architects. One of them - Bruno Taut exclaimed once: "Can it be true that houses from stone will transform hearts into stone?" Architect Phillip Moizer answered: "Unlikely. Anyway, nobody has still turned into glass man from in the glass building constructed by Bruno Taut in 1914 in Cologne for the exhibition of factory association".
I. Masharipov. Our architecture has reached a new level. Requirement for architectural image, functionality and decoration has increased. The majority of buildings constructed 20-30 years ago need reconstruction of facades, exterior and interior decorating as well as improvement of functional planning. We have reached successes in their reconstruction. As for new buildings they meet modern requirements.
Combination of new construction technologies and traditions of national architecture gives up especial charm to buildings. Such buildings well keep architectural image of our days for a long.
Progress in construction industry will enable to construct modern and quite functional buildings in 5-6 years. Today alicapon is applied in facing of facades and interior walls. In good time it will be replaced by another, more innovative materials. One of recent exhibitions of construction materials exposed gypsum cardboard, capable to transform easily.
Any building with artistic decoration creates cheerful emotions. Therefore requirements of our people move experts to manufacture of new materials, new structures and compositions.
A.Faizullaev Among the buildings constructed in the period of independence, I would like to point out the building of Senate Oliy Majlis of Uzbekistan. It delights with whiteness in sunny days. The facade of Tashkent Khokimiyat reflects administrative function of this building. Majestic building of State Conservatory of Uzbekistan and Theatre by Khamza contain figurative elements peculiar to art. In Uzbekistan construction technologies has been developed much. Parts and details of buildings are manufactured at factories what much improves exterior image of buildings. In fact, constructive or decorative parts manufactured at factories are of better quality in comparison with ones made in conditions of any construction site.
D. Nozilov. Did our architects adhere to any architectural style after our republic became independent? Did you think about their stylistic orientation?
S. Hidoyatov. I did not think of it at all. However, the buildings show a peculiar style. For example, the facade of State Conservatory of Uzbekistan with its exterior decor, columns and bas-reliefs reflect a functional purpose of this building. That expose high architectural level. Interior provides good isolation of separate classrooms and concert hall.
For example, "Sheraton" Hotel located in the street of Navoi, near Alaisky market. The central multi-story building is added with a structure in a form of turned frying pan. The form and proportions of this structure do not harmonize with vertically stretched major building. At the same time, located opposite and reconstructed "Dedeman" Hotel show harmony of architectural forms.
Another modern building in Tashkent is National Bank of Uzbekistan. The building clearly demonstrate its functional purpose, and proportionality of usual forms provides its rich composition.
I think the buildings similar to "Sheraton" Hotel and National Bank of Uzbekistan may be related to Art Nouveau. The museum of History of the Temurids and the building of Oliy Majlis legislative chamber could be considered modern samples of our national architecture.
A. Faizullaev. Honestly speaking, I cannot classify our new buildings stylistically. All of them have own architectural solutions, each of them has composition and planning adequate to modern requirements. Compositionally they are correlated with old buildings and open grounds surrounding them and occupy a dominant position among them. It should be noted that construction in the period of independence proceeded from requirements of modern architecture.
D. Nozilov. In Tashkent many new private houses are under construction. Their exterior expose European, mainly, Gothic architectural features with huge glassed surface of walls and big internal halls, which are used only for grand celebrations. What do you think about that?
S. Hidoyatov. Really, facades of many private houses are designed according to European architectural styles. An architect creates a design proceeding from requirements of a customer and has to follow his taste. This situation reflects also aspiration to stylistic imitation of European private villas. However, huge glass surfaces of external walls do not correspond to our climatic conditions and functions of dwelling rooms. The same concerns big halls. In the last decade of the 20th century such halls were intended for weddings, birthday parties and various meetings. However, now construction of tuikhona - special public buildings for celebrations is very popular. So, a role of big halls in private houses is reducing.
I. Masharipov. I think it is necessary to inform customers on our local architectural traditions. He should understand that European standards can not correspond with our local climatic conditions. In fact, earlier or later a customer will feel discomfort living in a house of European design, and will be disappointed that the architect has not inform him on specific features of local construction and our climatic conditions. Starting a project an architect must consider everything. It is necessary to remember that an architect is also responsible for dissonance of a house and environment.
A. Faizullaev. Really, today our customers have high requirement for quality of life. They worked and lived in the most beautiful cities of the world or visited them. An architect designs a house which a customer could see somewhere or in books and magazines, and a customer tries to explain what he wants. Certainly, an architect should take into account requirements of a customer, but it is necessary to discuss more details of a project.
I would agree with said above that defects of a house much depend on an architect. Today some people without special architectural education find projects of houses in Internet and include some details which they like in own project.
It should be noted that now in central districts of the city centre and near bazaars private 3-story and more houses have a ground floor intended for shop, office or small enterprise. Such houses, first, create convenience for the people living in the district. Second, they are profitable for the owner who lives and works, there and thirdly, multi-story houses occupy smaller area.
D. Nozilov. What are your wishes and ideas on development of our national architecture and aspiration to make our cities more beautiful and comfortable for citizens.
Sh. Hidoyatov. It is necessary to pay more attention to design of building, to organic balance between national and modern. Today the problem of garages and parking is topical. Therefore, I am for construction of multi-story underground and ground garages.
I. Masharipov. I would like that our architecture combines traditional national and modern features. I think it is necessary to pay more attention to construction of centers for rest. For example, we have no winter centers. It is possible to construct "mini towns" from several structures with amusement grounds for children, places for rest of their parents, rooms for chess and checkers playing, halls for performances, shops and fountains.
A. Faizullaev. I think our achievements in architecture put forward projects of ultramodern buildings. Grandiose ultramodern buildings have brought our capital to the level of the most beautiful cities of the world. I think time has come to construct roofed football stadium meeting the world standards in Tashkent.